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Notes on Pandemics and Vaccination

By Ira Spar, MD The American pandemic of Yellow Fever lasted 250 years, and neither its cause by virus nor transmission by mosquitoes was known. High fevers, severe jaundice, and…

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Independent Thinking on Independence Day

The evolution of clinical medicine that was true to empirical observations but was not mere empiricism, and simultaneously scientific, i.e., based on reproducible, objective measurements, both qualitative and quantitative, of…

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Gaudeamus igitur

It is that time of year again! Students, trainees, fellows – everyone at the end of her educational period of learning – is now preparing to “graduate,” a verb and…

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